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3043Attempt to resolve the terminology confusion of heading vs header.2009-04-30 19:04
@@ -8931,21 +8931,21 @@ background: transparent">blue&lt;/span>.&lt;/p></pre>
   <p>This requirement is not a hard requirement, however, as there are
   many cases where an element can be empty legitimately, for example
   when it is used as a placeholder which will later be filled in by a
   script, or when the element is part of a template and would on most
   pages be filled in but on some pages is not relevant.</p>
 
 
   <h5>Sectioning content</h5>
 
   <p><dfn>Sectioning content</dfn> is content that defines the scope
-  of <span title="heading content">headers</span>, <span
+  of <span title="heading content">headings</span>, <span
   title="footer">footers</span>, and <span title="address">contact
   information</span>.</p>
 
   <p>Each <span>sectioning content</span> element potentially has a
   heading and an <span>outline</span>. See the section on
   <span>headings and sections</span> for further details.</p>
 
   <p class="note">There are also certain elements that are <span
   title="sectioning root">sectioning roots</span>. These are distinct
   from <span>sectioning content</span>, but they can also have an
@@ -9188,21 +9188,21 @@ http://software.hixie.ch/utilities/js/live-dom-viewer/?%3C%21DOCTYPE%20HTML%3E%0
   <code>p</code> elements.</p>
 
   <p class="note">The <code>p</code> element can be used to wrap
   individual paragraphs when there would otherwise not be any content
   other than phrasing content to separate the paragraphs from each
   other.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>In the following example, there are two paragraphs in a
-   section. There is also a header, which contains phrasing content
+   section. There is also a heading, which contains phrasing content
    that is not a paragraph. Note how the comments and
    <span>inter-element whitespace</span> do not form paragraphs.</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;section>
   &lt;h1>Example of paragraphs&lt;/h1>
   This is the &lt;em>first&lt;/em> paragraph in this example.
   &lt;p>This is the second.&lt;/p>
   &lt;!-- This is not a paragraph. -->
 &lt;/section></pre>
 
@@ -9218,21 +9218,21 @@ http://software.hixie.ch/utilities/js/live-dom-viewer/?%3C%21DOCTYPE%20HTML%3E%0
   This is the &lt;em>first&lt;/em> paragraph in&lt;/ins> this example&lt;del>.
   &lt;p>This is the second.&lt;/p>&lt;/del>
   &lt;!-- This is not a paragraph. -->
 &lt;/section></pre>
 
   </div>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>In the following example, the link spans half of the first
-   paragraph, all of the header separating the two paragraphs, and
+   paragraph, all of the heading separating the two paragraphs, and
    half of the second paragraph.</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;aside>
  Welcome!
  &lt;a href="about.html">
   This is home of...
   &lt;h1>The Falcons!&lt;/h1>
   The Lockheed Martin multirole jet fighter aircraft!
  &lt;/a>
  This page discusses the F-16 Fighting Falcon's innermost secrets.
@@ -10318,45 +10318,45 @@ http://software.hixie.ch/utilities/js/live-dom-viewer/?%3C%21DOCTYPE%20HTML%3E%0
    <dt>Content attributes:</dt>
    <dd><span>Global attributes</span></dd>
    <dt>DOM interface:</dt>
    <dd>Uses <code>HTMLElement</code>.</dd>
   </dl>
 
   <p>The <code>title</code> element <span>represents</span> the
   document's title or name. Authors should use titles that identify
   their documents even when they are used out of context, for example
   in a user's history or bookmarks, or in search results. The
-  document's title is often different from its first header, since the
-  first header does not have to stand alone when taken out of
+  document's title is often different from its first heading, since the
+  first heading does not have to stand alone when taken out of
   context.</p>
 
   <p>There must be no more than one <code>title</code> element per
   document.</p>
 
   <p>The <code>title</code> element must not contain any
   elements.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>Here are some examples of appropriate titles, contrasted with
-   the top-level headers that might be used on those same pages.</p>
+   the top-level headings that might be used on those same pages.</p>
 
    <pre>  &lt;title>Introduction to The Mating Rituals of Bees&lt;/title>
     ...
   &lt;h1>Introduction&lt;/h1>
   &lt;p>This companion guide to the highly successful
   &lt;cite>Introduction to Medieval Bee-Keeping&lt;/cite> book is...
 </pre>
 
    <p>The next page might be a part of the same site. Note how the
    title describes the subject matter unambiguously, while the first
-   header assumes the reader knows what the context is and therefore
+   heading assumes the reader knows what the context is and therefore
    won't wonder if the dances are Salsa or Waltz:</p>
 
    <pre>  &lt;title>Dances used during bee mating rituals&lt;/title>
     ...
   &lt;h1>The Dances&lt;/h1></pre>
 
   </div>
 
   <p>The string to use as the document's title is given by the <code
   title="dom-document-title">document.title</code> DOM
@@ -12940,21 +12940,21 @@ not-slash     = %x0000-002E / %x0030-%10FFFF
    <dt>Content model:</dt>
    <dd><span>Flow content</span>.</dd>
    <dt>Content attributes:</dt>
    <dd><span>Global attributes</span></dd>
    <dt>DOM interface:</dt>
    <dd>Uses <code>HTMLElement</code>.</dd>
   </dl>
 
   <p>The <code>section</code> element <span>represents</span> a
   generic document or application section. A section, in this context,
-  is a thematic grouping of content, typically with a header, possibly
+  is a thematic grouping of content, typically with a heading, possibly
   with a footer.</p>
 
   <p class="example">Examples of sections would be chapters, the
   various tabbed pages in a tabbed dialog box, or the numbered
   sections of a thesis. A Web site's home page could be split into
   sections for an introduction, news items, contact information.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>In the following example, we see an article (part of a larger
@@ -13173,21 +13173,21 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
    <dt>Contexts in which this element may be used:</dt>
    <dd>Where <span>flow content</span> is expected.</dd>
    <dt>Content model:</dt>
    <dd><span>Phrasing content</span>.</dd>
    <dt>Content attributes:</dt>
    <dd><span>Global attributes</span></dd>
    <dt>DOM interface:</dt>
    <dd>Uses <code>HTMLElement</code>.</dd>
   </dl>
 
-  <p>These elements <span title="represents">represent</span> headers
+  <p>These elements <span title="represents">represent</span> headings
   for their sections.</p>
 
   <p>The semantics and meaning of these elements are defined in the
   section on <span>headings and sections</span>.</p>
 
   <p>These elements have a <dfn>rank</dfn> given by the number in
   their name. The <code>h1</code> element is said to have the highest
   rank, the <code>h6</code> element has the lowest rank, and two
   elements with the same name have equal rank.</p>
 
@@ -13202,49 +13202,49 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
    <dd>Where <span>flow content</span> is expected.</dd>
    <dt>Content model:</dt>
    <dd>One or more <code>h1</code>, <code>h2</code>, <code>h3</code>, <code>h4</code>, <code>h5</code>, and/or <code>h6</code> elements.</dd>
    <dt>Content attributes:</dt>
    <dd><span>Global attributes</span></dd>
    <dt>DOM interface:</dt>
    <dd>Uses <code>HTMLElement</code>.</dd>
   </dl>
 
   <p>The <code>hgroup</code> element <span>represents</span> the
-  header of a section. The element is used to group a set of
-  <code>h1</code>&ndash;<code>h6</code> elements when the header has
+  heading of a section. The element is used to group a set of
+  <code>h1</code>&ndash;<code>h6</code> elements when the heading has
   multiple levels, such as subheadings, alternative titles, or
   taglines.</p>
 
   <p>For the purposes of document summaries, outlines, and the like,
   the text of <code>hgroup</code> elements is defined to be the text
   of the highest <span title="rank">ranked</span>
   <code>h1</code>&ndash;<code>h6</code> element descendant of the
   <code>hgroup</code> element, if there are any such elements, and the
   first such element if there are multiple elements with that
   <span>rank</span>. If there are no such elements, then the text of
   the <code>hgroup</code> element is the empty string.</p>
 
-  <p>Other heading elements in the <code>hgroup</code> element
-  indicate subheadings or subtitles.</p>
+  <p>Other elements of <span>heading content</span> in the
+  <code>hgroup</code> element indicate subheadings or subtitles.</p>
 
   <p>The <span>rank</span> of an <code>hgroup</code> element is the
   same as for an <code>h1</code> element (the highest rank).</p>
 
   <p>The section on <span>headings and sections</span>
   defines how <code>hgroup</code> elements are assigned to individual
   sections.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
-   <p>Here are some examples of valid headers. In each case, the
+   <p>Here are some examples of valid headings. In each case, the
    emphasized text represents the text that would be used as the
-   header in an application extracting header data and ignoring
+   heading in an application extracting heading data and ignoring
    subheadings.</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;hgroup&gt;
  &lt;h1&gt;<strong>The reality dysfunction</strong>&lt;/h1&gt;
  &lt;h2&gt;Space is not the only void&lt;/h2&gt;
 &lt;/hgroup&gt;</pre>
 
    <pre>&lt;hgroup&gt;
  &lt;h1&gt;<strong>Dr. Strangelove</strong>&lt;/h1&gt;
  &lt;h2&gt;Or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb&lt;/h2&gt;
@@ -13263,43 +13263,38 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
    <dt>Content model:</dt>
    <dd><span>Flow content</span>, but with no <code>header</code>
    element descendants.</dd>
    <dt>Content attributes:</dt>
    <dd><span>Global attributes</span></dd>
    <dt>DOM interface:</dt>
    <dd>Uses <code>HTMLElement</code>.</dd>
   </dl>
 
   <p>The <code>header</code> element <span>represents</span> a group
-  of introductory or navigational aids for the section it <a
-  href="#applyToSection">applies</a> to. A <code>header</code> element
-  typically contains the section's header (an
+  of introductory or navigational aids. A <code>header</code> element
+  typically contains the section's heading (an
   <code>h1</code>&ndash;<code>h6</code> element or an
   <code>hgroup</code> element), but can also contain other content,
   such as a table of contents, a search form, or any relevant
   logos.</p>
 
-  <p>Contact information for the section to which the
-  <code>header</code> element <a href="#applyToSection">applies</a>
-  should be marked up using the <code>address</code> element.</p>
-
   <div class="example">
 
   <p>Here are some sample headers. This first one is for a game:</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;header&gt;
  &lt;p&gt;Welcome to...&lt;/p&gt;
  &lt;h1&gt;Voidwars!&lt;/h1&gt;
 &lt;/header&gt;</pre>
 
    <p>The following snippet shows how the element can be used to mark
-   up a specification's heading:</p>
+   up a specification's header:</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;header&gt;
  &lt;hgroup&gt;
   &lt;h1&gt;Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.2&lt;/h1&gt;
   &lt;h2&gt;W3C Working Draft 27 October 2004&lt;/h2&gt;
  &lt;/hgroup&gt;
  &lt;dl&gt;
   &lt;dt&gt;This version:&lt;/dt&gt;
   &lt;dd&gt;&lt;a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20041027/"&gt;http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/WD-SVG12-20041027/&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/dd&gt;
   &lt;dt&gt;Previous version:&lt;/dt&gt;
@@ -13382,21 +13377,21 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
   <p>Contact information for the section to which the
   <code>footer</code> element <a href="#applyToSection">applies</a>
   should be marked up using the <code>address</code> element.</p>
 
   <p>Footers don't necessarily have to appear at the end of a section,
   though they usually do.</p>
 
   <p>The <code>footer</code> element is inappropriate for containing
   entire sections. For appendices, indexes, long colophons, verbose
   license agreements, and other such content which needs sectioning
-  with headers and so forth, regular <code>section</code> elements
+  with headings and so forth, regular <code>section</code> elements
   should be used, not a <code>footer</code>.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>Here is a page with two footers, one at the top and one at the
    bottom, with the same content:</p>
 
    <pre>&lt;body>
  &lt;footer>&lt;a href="../">Back to index...&lt;/a>&lt;/footer>
  &lt;hgroup>
@@ -13488,35 +13483,35 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
 
 
 
   <h4><dfn>Headings and sections</dfn></h4>
 
   <p>The <code>h1</code>&ndash;<code>h6</code> elements and the
   <code>hgroup</code> element are headings.</p>
 
   <p>The first element of <span>heading content</span> in an element
   of <span>sectioning content</span> <span>represents</span> the
-  header for that section. Subsequent headers of equal or higher
-  <span>rank</span> start new (implied) sections, headers of lower
+  heading for that section. Subsequent headings of equal or higher
+  <span>rank</span> start new (implied) sections, headings of lower
   <span>rank</span> start implied subsections that are part of the
   previous one. In both cases, the element <span>represents</span> the
-  header of the implied section.</p>
+  heading of the implied section.</p>
 
   <p><span>Sectioning content</span> elements are always considered
   subsections of their nearest ancestor element of <span>sectioning
   content</span>, regardless of what implied sections other headings
   may have created.</p>
 
   <p>Certain elements are said to be <dfn title="sectioning
   root">sectioning roots</dfn>, including <code>blockquote</code> and
   <code>td</code> elements. These elements can have their own
-  outlines, but the sections and headers inside these elements do not
+  outlines, but the sections and headings inside these elements do not
   contribute to the outlines of their ancestors.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
    <p>For the following fragment:</p>
    <pre>&lt;body&gt;
  &lt;h1&gt;Foo&lt;/h1&gt;
  &lt;h2&gt;Bar&lt;/h2&gt;
  &lt;blockquote&gt;
   &lt;h3&gt;Bla&lt;/h3&gt;
  &lt;/blockquote&gt;
@@ -13542,21 +13537,21 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
        Thud (heading of explicit <code>section</code> section)
       </li>
      </ol>
     </li>
    </ol>
    <p>Notice how the <code>section</code> ends the earlier implicit
    section so that a later paragraph ("Grunt") is back at the top
    level.</p>
   </div>
 
-  <p>Sections may contain headers of any <span>rank</span>, but
+  <p>Sections may contain headings of any <span>rank</span>, but
   authors are strongly encouraged to either use only <code>h1</code>
   elements, or to use elements of the appropriate <span>rank</span>
   for the section's nesting level.</p>
 
   <p>Authors are also encouraged to explicitly wrap sections in
   elements of <span>sectioning content</span>, instead of relying on
   the implicit sections generated by having multiple heading in one
   element of <span>sectioning content</span>.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
@@ -13915,21 +13910,21 @@ isn't his only passion. He also enjoys other pleasures.&lt;/p>
   jump the user to the relevant <span>sectioning content</span>
   element, if the <span title="concept-section">section</span> was
   created for a real element in the original document, or to the
   relevant <span>heading content</span> element, if the <span
   title="concept-section">section</span> in the tree was generated for
   a heading in the above process.</p>
 
   <p class="note">Selecting the first <span
   title="concept-section">section</span> of the document therefore
   always takes the user to the top of the document, regardless of
-  where the first header in the <code>body</code> is to be found.</p>
+  where the first heading in the <code>body</code> is to be found.</p>
   <!-- XXX assuming there is a body, anyway -->
 
   <div class="note">
 
    <p>The following JavaScript function shows how the tree walk could
    be implemented. The <var title="">root</var> argument is the root
    of the tree to walk, and the <var title="">enter</var> and <var
    title="">exit</var> arguments are callbacks that are called with
    the nodes as they are entered and exited. <a
    href="#refsECMA262">[ECMA262]</a></p>
@@ -17327,21 +17322,21 @@ brighter. A &lt;b>rat&lt;/b> scurries past the corner wall.&lt;/p></pre>
    <pre>&lt;article>
  &lt;h2>Kittens 'adopted' by pet rabbit&lt;/h2>
  &lt;p>&lt;b>Six abandoned kittens have found an unexpected new
  mother figure &mdash; a pet rabbit.&lt;/b>&lt;/p>
  &lt;p>Veterinary nurse Melanie Humble took the three-week-old
  kittens to her Aberdeen home.&lt;/p>
 <i>[...]</i></pre>
   </div>
 
   <p>The <code>b</code> element should be used as a last resort when
-  no other element is more appropriate. In particular, headers should
+  no other element is more appropriate. In particular, headings should
   use the <code>h1</code> to <code>h6</code> elements, stress emphasis
   should use the <code>em</code> element, importance should be denoted
   with the <code>strong</code> element, and text marked or highlighted
   should use the <code>mark</code> element.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
    <p>The following would be <em>incorrect</em> usage:</p>
    <pre>&lt;p>&lt;b>WARNING!&lt;/b> Do not frob the barbinator!&lt;/p></pre>
    <p>In the previous example, the correct element to use would have
    been <code>strong</code>, not <code>b</code>.</p>
@@ -18874,21 +18869,21 @@ document.write(), passes data to the Tokenizer."></strong>&lt;/p></pre>
  &lt;/article>
 &lt;/body></pre>
 
   </div>
 
   <p>Many pages include logos, insignia, flags, or emblems, which
   stand for a particular entity such as a company, organization,
   project, band, software package, country, or some such.</p>
 
   <p>If the logo is being used to represent the entity, e.g. as a page
-  header, the <code title="attr-img-alt">alt</code> attribute must
+  heading, the <code title="attr-img-alt">alt</code> attribute must
   contain the name of the entity being represented by the logo. The
   <code title="attr-img-alt">alt</code> attribute must <em>not</em>
   contain text like the word "logo", as it is not the fact that it is
   a logo that is being conveyed, it's the entity itself.</p>
 
   <p>If the logo is being used next to the name of the entity that
   it represents, then the logo is supplemental, and its <code
   title="attr-img-alt">alt</code> attribute must instead be
   empty.</p>
 
@@ -18957,25 +18952,25 @@ at least that would look good on the cover of a blue book.&lt;/p></pre>
   render the text, but just to convey the text itself.</p>
 
   <p>In such cases, the <code title="attr-img-alt">alt</code>
   attribute must be present but must consist of the same text as
   written in the image itself.</p>
 
   <div class="example">
 
    <p>Consider a graphic containing the text "Earth Day", but with the
    letters all decorated with flowers and plants. If the text is
-   merely being used as a header, to spice up the page for graphical
+   merely being used as a heading, to spice up the page for graphical
    users, then the correct alternative text is just the same text
    "Earth Day", and no mention need be made of the decorations:</p>
 
-   <pre>&lt;h1><strong>&lt;img src="earthdayheader.png" alt="Earth Day"></strong>&lt;/h1></pre>
+   <pre>&lt;h1><strong>&lt;img src="earthdayheading.png" alt="Earth Day"></strong>&lt;/h1></pre>
 
   </div>
 
 
 
   <h6>A graphical representation of some of the surrounding text</h6>
 
   <p>In many cases, the image is actually just supplementary, and
   its presence merely reinforces the surrounding text. In these
   cases, the <code title="attr-img-alt">alt</code> attribute must be
@@ -72670,23 +72665,23 @@ http://lxr.mozilla.org/seamonkey/search?string=nested
 
   <pre class="css">@namespace url(http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml);
 
 [hidden], area, audio:not([controls]), base, basefont, command,
 datalist, head, input[type=hidden], link, menu[type=context], meta,
 noembed, noframes, param, script, source, style, title {
   display: none;
 }
 
 address, article, aside, blockquote, body, center, dd, dialog, dir,
-div, dl, dt, figure, footer, form, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, header, hr,
-html, legend, listing, menu, nav, ol, p, plaintext, pre, rp, section,
-ul, xmp { display: block; }
+div, dl, dt, figure, footer, form, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, header,
+hgroup, hr, html, legend, listing, menu, nav, ol, p, plaintext, pre,
+rp, section, ul, xmp { display: block; }
 
 table { display: table; }
 caption { display: table-caption; }
 colgroup { display: table-column-group; }
 col { display: table-column; }
 thead { display: table-header-group; }
 tbody { display: table-row-group; }
 tfoot { display: table-footer-group; }
 tr { display: table-row; }
 td, th { display: table-cell; }

|